Kalyani (raga)

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Kalyani
ArohanamS R₂ G₃ M₂ P D₂ N₃ 
Avarohanam N₃ D₂ P M₂ G₃ R₂ S
EquivalentLydian mode

Kalyani is a melakarta raga (parent musical scale) in the Carnatic music. It was called Kalyan but is now more popularly called Yaman in Hindustani Music. Its Western equivalent is the Lydian mode.

Kalyani in Carnatic music[edit]

In South Indian weddings it is a very prominently played raga. The word Kalyani means she who causes auspicious things. It is the 65th melakarta raga under the Katapayadi sankhya. It is also called Mechakalyani. The notes for Kalyani are S R2 G3 M2 P D2 N3. Kalyani is the first Prathi Madhyama raga that was ever discovered. It was obtained by the process of Graha Bhedam or modal shift of tonic of the ancient Shadja Grama.[1]

Specifics on this raga[edit]

Kalyani has scope for elaborate alapana. One should not remain too long on panchamam (pa) or alternate between shadjamam and panchamam too frequently. Kalyani is prominently known among the public. It is often performed at the beginning of concerts because it is considered auspicious.[1] This raga is very special because it is sung with all higher notes.

Structure and lakshana[edit]

Kalyani scale with Shadjam at C

It is the 5th ragam in the 11th chakra Rudra. The mnemonic name is Rudra-Ma. The mnemonic phrase is sa ri gu mi pa dhi (or 'di') nu.[2] Its arohana-avarohana structure is as follows (see swaras in Carnatic music for details on below notation and terms):

The notes used in this scale are shadjam, chatushūruti rishabam, antara gandharam, prati madhyamam, chatushruti dhaivatam, kakali nishadam. It is a Sampurna raga in Carnatic music, that is to say, has all the seven notes: Sa, Ri, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni. It is the prati madhyamam equivalent of Sankarabharanam, which is the 29th melakarta. This raga is very significant to the chart, because it is sung with all higher notes.

Janya ragams[edit]

Kalyani has many janya ragams (derived scales) associated with it, of which Hamir Kalyani, Mohanakalyani, Saranga, Sunadavinodini and Yamuna Kalyani are very popular. See List of Janya Ragams for full list of rāgams associated with Kalyani.

Popular compositions[edit]

Nearly every significant Carnatic composer (including the Trinity of Carnatic music) has composed several pieces in the Kalyani ragam. Kalyani is also considered one of the "major" ragams of Carnatic music along with Sankarabharanam, Todi and Kharaharapriya (the set of "major" rāgams is an informal grouping of the most popular ragams used for elaboration and exploration, and which often form the centerpiece of a Carnatic music concert in the form of a Ragam Tanam Pallavi (RTP) or a kriti). See next section for further information on relationships between these ragams.

Here is a short list of compositions in Kalyani.

The most popular film composition set in Kalyani is "Mannavan Vandhanadi Thozhi" by K. V. Mahadevan rendered by P. Susheela,[3]" and Sindhanai Sei Maname by G. Ramanadhan. M. S. Viswanathan has composed numerous songs in Kalyani such as "Isai Ketal Puvi" from the movie Thavapudhalavan, "Indha Mandrathil" from Policekaran Magal, "Maalai Sudum mananaal" from Nichaya Thamboolam, "Kannan Vandhan" from Ramu, "Azhagennum Oviyam Inge", "Paar Magale Paar", "Varuvan Vadivelan", "Maduraiyil Parandha Meenkodi", "Mugathil Mugam paarkalam". "Amma Endrazhaikkaatha Uyirillaye" by Ilayaraja, "Manmadha Pournami" (P. Susheela) in Panchavankadu by G. Devarajan. The track Kalaivaniye in Sindhu Bhairavi is set in the Kalyani rāgam and sung without an avarohaṇam. The Bharathiar composition Veenai Adi Nee Enakku from the movie Ezhavathu Manithan is also set in the Kalyani ragam. The Telugu movie Sankarabharanam has a Shloka "Māṇikya Upalālayanti" set in this ragam. "Aa Nimishathinte" from the Malayalam movie Chandrakantham and "Swarganandini" from Lankadahanam composed by M. S. Viswanathan also set in Kalayani.

Related ragams[edit]

This section covers the theoretical and scientific aspects of Kalyani.

Kalyani's notes when shifted using Graha bhedam, yields 5 other major Melakarta ragams, namely, Hanumatodi, Sankarabharanam, Natabhairavi, Kharaharapriya and Harikambhoji. For further details and an illustration of Graha bhedam of this ragam refer Related ragams section in Sankarabharanam page.

Film songs[edit]

Tamil[edit]

Song Movie Composer Singer
"Sindhanai Sei Maname" Ambikapathy G. Ramanathan T. M. Soundararajan
"Ennarumai Kadhalikku Vennilaave" Ellarum Innattu Mannar T. G. Lingappa
"Vennila Vaanil Varum" Mannippu S. M. Subbaiah Naidu T. M. Soundararajan, P. Susheela
"Mannavan Vandhaanadi" Thiruvarutchelvar K. V. Mahadevan P. Susheela
"Naan Anuppuvadhu" Pesum Dheivam T. M. Soundararajan
"Kan Pona Pokile" Panam Padaithavan Viswanathan–Ramamoorthy
"Naan Enna Soliviten" Bale Pandiya
"Athikkai Kai Kai" T. M. Soundararajan, P. B. Sreenivas, P. Susheela, Jamuna Rani
"Indha Mandrathil Odi Varum" Policekaran Magal P. B. Sreenivas, S. Janaki
"Kalaimangai Uruvam Kandu" Maganey Kel Sirkazhi Govindarajan, M. L. Vasanthakumari
"Mugathil Mugam Paarkalam" Thanga Padhumai T. M. Soundararajan, P. Leela
"Vetkamaai Irukudhadi" Paar Magaley Paar P. Leela, Soolamangalam Rajalakshmi
"Paar Magale Paar" T. M. Soundararajan, M. S. Viswanathan
"Maalai Soodum Mananaal" Nichaya Thaamboolam P. Susheela
"Isaikettal Puvi" Thavapudhalavan M. S. Viswanathan T. M. Soundararajan
"Madhurayil Parantha" Poova Thalaiya
"Kettadhum Koduppavane Krishna" Deiva Magan
"Chithirai Maadham" Raman Ethanai Ramanadi P. Susheela
"Kannan Vandhan" Ramu Seerkazhi Govindarajan, T. M. Soundararajan
"Azhagenum Ooviyam" Oorukku Uzhaippavan K. J. Yesudas, P. Susheela
"Varuvaan Vadivelan" Varuvan Vadivelan Vani Jairam
"Then Sindhuthey" Ponnukku Thanga Manasu G. K. Venkatesh S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, S. Janaki
"Sundari Kannal Oru Seithi" Thalapathy Ilaiyaraaja
"Yamunai Aatrile" Mitali Banerjee Bhawmik
"Vellai Pura Onru" Puthukavithai K. J. Yesudas, S. Janaki
"Kannale Kadhal Kavithai" Athma
"Vaidhegi Raman" Pagal Nilavu S. Janaki
"Janani Janani" Thaai Mookaambikai Ilaiyaraaja
"Maname Avan Vazhum" Pagalil Pournami
"Nathiyil Aadum" Kaadhal Oviyam S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, S. Janaki, Deepan Chakravarthy
"Devan Thantha Veenai" Unnai Naan Santhithen S. P. Balasubrahmanyam (Solo Ver), (P. Jayachandran, S. Janaki) (Duet Ver)
"Oru Vanavil pole" Kaatrinile Varum Geetham P. Jayachandran, S. Janaki
"Manjal Veyil" Nandu Uma Ramanan
"Devan Kovil Deepam Ondru" Naan Paadum Paadal S. N. Surendar, S. Janaki
"Aararo Aararo" Anand Lata Mangeshkar
"Malaiyoram Mayile" Oruvar Vaazhum Aalayam Malaysia Vasudevan, K. S. Chitra
"Siru Koottile Ulla" Paandi Nattu Thangam K. S. Chitra, Mano
"Naan Embathu Nee Allava" Soora Samhaaram Arunmozhi, K. S. Chithra
"Odai Kuyil Oru" Thalattu Padava
"Amma Endruzhakatha" Mannan K. J. Yesudas
"Kalaivaniye" Sindhu Bhairavi
"Oru Maalai Chandiran" Unnai Vaazhthi Paadugiren S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, Minmini
"Kaatril Varum Geethame" Oru Naal Oru Kanavu Ilaiyaraaja, Hariharan, Shreya Ghoshal, Sadhana Sargam, Bhavatharini
"Nirpathuve Nadapathuve" Bharathi Harish Raghavendra
"Yaar Veetil Roja" Idaya Kovil S. P. Balasubrahmanyam
"Vanthal Mahalakshmi" Uyarndha Ullam
"Vizhigal Meeno" Raagangal Maaruvathillai
"Aazh Kadalil" Raagam Thedum Pallavi T. Rajendar
"Pasamalare" Neethibathi Gangai Amaran T. M. Soundararajan, P.Susheela
"Vaigai nathiyil oru Paravai" Natchathiram Shankar–Ganesh S. Janaki
"Yaradhu Sollamal Nenjalli" Nenjamellam Neeye Vani Jairam
"Om Ganapathiye Ganapathiye" Marumagal Chandrabose Vani Jairam & Chorus
"Putham Puthu Olai" Vedham Pudhithu Devendran K. S. Chithra
"Azhagu Nilave" Pavithra A. R. Rahman
"Varaga Nadhikaraiyoram" Sangamam Shankar Mahadevan
"Enthan Vaanil" Kadhal Virus S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, Swarnalatha (Humming only)
"Kadhal Niagara" En Swasa Kaatre Palakkad Sreeram, Harini, Annupamaa
"Neethan En Desiya Geetham" Paarthale Paravasam P. Balram, K. S. Chitra
"Sakthi Kodu" Baba Karthik
"Methuvagathan" Kochadaiiyaan S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, Sadhana Sargam
"Ey Maanburu Mangaiye" Guru Srinivas, Sujatha Mohan, A. R. Rahman
"Yaarumilla Thaniarangil" Kaaviya Thalaivan Swetha Mohan, Srinivas
"Kathal Ennum Keerthanam" En Aasai Rasathi Dr. Chandilyan S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, K. S. Chitra
"Mudhan Mudhalil" Aahaa..! Deva Hariharan, K. S. Chitra
"Yen Nenjamoh" Santharpam Uma Ramanan
"Gokulathu kanna" Gokulathil Seethai S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, K. S. Chitra, Deva
"Enthan Uyire Enthan Uyire" Unnaruge Naan Irundhal Krishnaraj, K. S. Chitra
"Katrin Mozhi" Mozhi Vidyasagar Balram, Sujatha Mohan
"Pudhu Malar Thottu" Poovellam Un Vasam Sriram Parthasarathy
"Naan Mozhi Arindhen" Kanden Kadhalai Suresh Wadkar
"Oru Theithi Paarthal" Coimbatore Mappillai Hariharan, Sadhana Sargam
"Yen Pennendru" Love Today Shiva Mohammed Aslam, Bombay Jayashri
"Kaadhal Aasai" Anjaan Yuvan Shankar Raja Yuvan Shankar Raja, Sooraj Santhosh
"Pogadhey Pogadhey" Deepavali Yuvan Shankar Raja
"Never let me go" Pyaar Prema Kaadhal Suranjan, Shweta Pandit
"Vizhigalin Aruginil" Azhagiya Theeye Ramesh Vinayakam
"Kannanai Thedi" Marupadiyum Oru Kadhal Srikanth Deva Shreya Ghoshal
"Mun Andhi" 7aum Arivu Harris Jayaraj Karthik, Megha
Uyire En Uyire Thotti Jaya Karthik, Bombay Jayashri, Anuradha Sriram
"Mellinamae Mellinamae" Shahjahan Mani Sharma Harish Raghavendra
"Ennena Seidhom Ingu" Mayakkam Enna G. V. Prakash Kumar
"Yen Aala Paakkaporaen" Kayal D. Imman Shreya Ghoshal, Ranjith
"Sara Sara Saara Kaathu" Vaagai Sooda Vaa Ghibran Chinmayi

Malayalam[edit]

Song Movie Composer lyrisist Singer
"Mazhavil Kothumbil" Adhwaytham M G Radhakrishnan Kaithapuram M G Sreekumar
"Mounam Swaramay" Ayushkaalam Ousepachan Kaithapram Damodaran Namboothiri KJ Yesudas, KS Chithra
"Poonkatinodum" Poomukapadiyil Ilaiyaraaja Biju thirumala K.J. Yesudas , S. Janaki

Historical information[edit]

Yaman/Aiman is not an ancient raga. It is first mentioned in the literature in the late 16th century, by which time it was very popular: The Sahasras contains 45 dhrupad song-texts for Kalyan and five for Iman-Kalyan. According to Venkatamakhin (1620), Kalyan was a favourite melody to the Arabs, and Pundarika included Yaman among his 'Persian' Ragas.[4]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Alternate notations:
    • Hindustani: S R G  P D N 
    • Western: C D E F G A B C
  2. ^ Alternate notations:
    • Hindustani:  N D P  G R S
    • Western: C B A G F E D C

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Rao, B.Subba (1996). Raganidhi: A Comparative Study of Hindustani And Karnatak Ragas. Volume Three (K to P). Madras: The Music Academy. p. 10.
  2. ^ Ragas in Carnatic music by Dr. S. Bhagyalekshmy, Pub. 1990, CBH Publications
  3. ^ http://www.thamizhisai.com/tamil-cinema/tamil-cinema-001/tc0001_thiruvarut-selvar.php
  4. ^ Bor 1997

Literature[edit]

Bor, Joep (1997), The Raga Guide, Charlottesville,Virginia: Nimbus Records
Kaufmann, Walter (1968), The Ragas of North India, Calcutta: Oxford and IBH Publishing Company.
Bagchee, Sandeep (1998), Nād, Understanding Rāga Music, Mumbai: Eshwar (Business Publications Inc.).
Bhatt, Balvantray (1964–1974), Bhāvaranga, Varanasi: Motilal Barnasidas.
Gandharva, Kumar (1965), Anūparāgavilāsa, Bombay: Mauj Prakashan.
Patwardhan, Vinayak Rao (1961–74), Rāga Vijñāna, Poona: Sangeet Gaurav Granthamala.
Srivastava, Harichandra (1973–79), Rāga Paricaya, Allahabad: SangeetSadan Prakashan.
Telang, Gokulanand; Bhartendu, Banwari Lal (1962), Sangīta Rāga Aṣṭachāpa, Hathras: Sangeet Karyalaya.
Thakar, Vasant Vaman, Sangīta Rāga Darśana, Prayag: Gandharva Mahavidyalaya Mandal Prakashan.
Rao, B. Subba (1964–66), Raganidhi, Madras: Music Academy.

External links[edit]

  • Moutal, Patrick (1991), Hindustāni Rāga-s Index, New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt Ltd, ISBN 81-215-0525-7