Ghe with upturn

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Cyrillic letter
Ghe with upturn
Cyrillic letter Ghe with upturn.png
Phonetic usage:[g]
The Cyrillic script
Slavic letters
АБВГҐДЂ
ЃЕЀЁЄЖЗ
З́ЅИЍЙІЇ
ЈКЛЉМНЊ
ОŌПРСС́Т
ЋЌУӮЎФХ
ЦЧЏШЩЪЫ
ЬЭЮЯ
Non-Slavic letters
А́А̀ӐА̄А̊А̃Ӓ
Ӓ̄ӔӘӘ́Ә̃ӚВ̌
ҒГ̑Г̣Г̌ҔӺҒ̌
ӶД̣Д̆ӖЕ̄Е̃Ё̄
Є̈ӁҖӜҘӞЗ̌
З̱З̣ԐԐ̈ӠӢИ̃
ҊӤИ́ҚӃҠҞ
ҜК̣ԚӅԮԒӍ
ӉҢԨӇҤО́О̀
О̆О̂О̃ӦӦ̄ӨӨ̄
Ө́Ө̆ӪҨԤР̌Ҏ
ҪС̣С̱Т̌Т̣ҬУ̃
ӰӰ́ӲҮҮ́ҰХ̣
Х̱Х̮Х̑ҲӼӾҺ
Һ̈ԦҴҶӴӋҸ
ҼҾЫ̆Ы̄ӸҌЭ̆
Э̄Э̇ӬӬ́Ӭ̄Ю̆Ю̈
Ю̈́Ю̄Я̆Я̄Я̈ԜӀ
Archaic letters
ҀѺ
ОУѠѼѾ
ѢѤѦ
ѪѨѬѮ
ѰѲѴѶԘ
ԀԔԖԠԢ
Ҧ
ԂԄԈԊԌ
ԎԆԞ
ԪԬГ̧Г̄

Ghe with upturn (Ґ ґ; italics: Ґ ґ ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script. It is part of the Ukrainian alphabet, the Pannonian Rusyn alphabet and both the Carpathian Rusyn alphabets, and also some variants of the Urum and Belarusian (i.e. Taraškievica) alphabets. In these alphabets it is usually called "Ge", while the letter it follows — ⟨Г г⟩ (which in its turn is also called "Ge" in Russian and many other languages) — is called "He". In Unicode, this letter is called "Ghe with upturn".[1]

The letterform of this letter is based on the letterform of the letter ⟨Г г⟩, but its handwritten and italic lowercase forms do not follow the italic modification of ⟨г⟩ (i.e. г).

It represents the voiced velar plosive /ɡ/, like the pronunciation of ⟨g⟩ in "go".

Ghe with upturn is romanized using the Latin letter G (but with an additional grave accent in ISO 9).

History[edit]

The common Slavic voiced velar plosive [ɡ] is represented in most Cyrillic orthographies by ⟨Г⟩, called ге ghe in most languages. In Ukrainian, however, around the early 13th century, the sound lenited to the voiced velar fricative [ɣ] (except in the cluster *zg),[2] and around the 16th century, debuccalized to the voiced glottal fricative [ɦ][3] (like the pronunciation of ⟨h⟩ in behind). The phoneme continued to be represented by ⟨Г⟩, called ге he in Ukrainian.

Within a century after this sound change began, [ɡ] was re-introduced from Western European loanwords. Since then, it has been represented by several different notations in writing.

In early Belarusian and Ukrainian orthographies, Latin ⟨g⟩ or the Cyrillic digraph ⟨кг⟩ (kh) were sometimes used for the sound of Latin ⟨g⟩ in assimilated words. The first text to consequently employ the letter ⟨ґ⟩ was the 16th-century Peresopnytsia Gospel. The use of the letter was not confined to the Old- and Middle-Ukrainian-speaking territory, and there was a fully-fledged use in the 16th-century printer Pyotr Mstislavets's edition of The Four Gospels. Later, distinguishing of the sound and using the digraph gradually disappeared from Belarusian orthography.

As far as linguistic studies are concerned, the letter ⟨ґ⟩ was first introduced into the Slavic alphabet in 1619 by Meletius Smotrytsky in his "Slavic Grammar" (Грамматіки славєнскиѧ правилноє Сѵнтаґма).[4] Later, for an identical purpose, it was saved in the new orthography of Ukrainian.

The letter ⟨ґ⟩ was officially eliminated from the Ukrainian alphabet in the Soviet orthographic reforms of 1933, its function being subsumed into that of the letter ⟨г⟩, pronounced in Ukrainian as [ɦ]. However, ⟨ґ⟩ continued to be used by Ukrainians in Galicia (part of Poland until 1939) and in the Ukrainian diaspora worldwide. It was reintroduced to Soviet Ukraine in a 1990 orthographic reform under glasnost.[5]

In Belarusian, the plosive realization of the Proto-Slavic voiced velar plosive has been preserved root-internally in the consonant clusters ⟨зг⟩, ⟨жг⟩, ⟨дзг⟩, and ⟨джг⟩ (in words such as мазгі [mazˈɡi], вэдзгаць [ˈvɛdzɡatsʲ] or джгаць [ˈdʐɡatsʲ] but not on a morphological boundary, as in згадаць [zɣaˈdatsʲ], in which /z/ is a prefix). It is present in common loanwords such as ганак [ˈɡanak], гузік [ˈɡuzʲik], or гандаль [ˈɡandalʲ]. In the 20th century, some Belarusian linguists, notably Jan Stankievič, promoted both the reintroduction of the practice of pronouncing Latin ⟨g⟩, at least in newly assimilated words, and the adoption of the letter ⟨ґ⟩ to represent it. However, consensus on this has never been reached, and the letter has never been part of the standard Belarusian alphabet and saw only sporadic periods of use. For example, a code of alternative Belarusian orthography rules, based on the proposal of Vincuk Viačorka and published in 2005, has the optional letter ⟨ґ⟩ included in the alphabet, but it can be replaced by ⟨г⟩.[6]

Usage in Slavic languages[edit]

Belarusian[edit]

The letter ґ next to г is used in the so-called "Taraškievica" - the classical spelling of the Belarusian language.

An attempt to differentiate in writing the transmission of sounds /ɣ/ and /g/, using along with the letter Г, г a special letter Ґ, ґ, which differed in size and shape, took place in the history of the Old Belarusian language.[7][8]

In A. Jelsky's publication in 1895, a new sign was introduced for the fricative /ɣ/ inherent in the Belarusian language, in contrast to the Russian breakthrough [g]. The new letter г̑ differed in contours from the letter Г, г by the presence of a diacritical mark in the form of a bracket bent downwards. In the publication of folklore and ethnographic work by A.K. Serzhputovsky in 1911, the sign Ґ, ґ with a curved upward horizontal line was proposed for the same purpose. The same sign was used in the alphabet of Kupala's collection in 1908 and became part of the alphabet approved by the first normative grammar of the Belarusian language by BA Tarashkevych, only with a different purpose - to convey a sonorous soft palate breakthrough /g/. But in 1933 the letter Ґ, ґ was excluded from the Belarusian alphabet, as well as from the Ukrainian one.

Belarusian Classical Orthography[edit]

§ 61. G When adopting foreign proper names, explosive /g/ can be transmitted through a letter ґ (“ґе”): Аґра, Аґюст, Анґола, Арґентына, Арлінґтан, Аўґуст, Аўґсбурґ, Біґ-Бэн, Буґацьці, Бэкінґгэм, Бэрґгоф, Бэльґрана, Вашынґтон, Віктор Юґо, Вюртэмбэрґ, Гааґа, Гайдэльбэрґ, Ґай, Ґас, Ґаза, Ґабрыеля, Ґалац, Ґалюа, Ґамбія, Ґаўс, Ґасконь, Ґарыбальдзі, Ґалґота, Ґаяна, Ґейл, Ґелера, Ґервяты, Ґент, Ґёбэльс, Ґётэ, Ґгаты, Ґібральтар, Ґіём, Ґітлін, Ґотлянд, Ґоццы, Ґоя, Ґэлап, Ґэртын, Ґэры, Ґрандэ, Ґрэнобль, Ґрэнляндыя, Ґрэйвэз, Ґлазґа, Ґудўін, Ґянджа, Ірвінґ, Кіплінґ, Кройцбэрґ, Лэнґлі, Лонґ-Айлэнд, Люксэмбурґ, Майнінґен, Мэґі, Ніяґара, Пітаґор, Пітсбурґ, Пэдынґтан, Ролінґ Стоўнз, Руґен, Рэдынґ, Рэґенсбурґ, Турынґія, Тыніс Мяґі, Сіґітас Ґяда, Сійґ, Фоґель, Хэнэраль-Бэльґрана, Уґанда, Эбінґгаўз etc.[9]

In the literary Belarusian language, an explosive sound /g/ (and its soft equivalent /gʲ/) pronounced in Belarusian sound combinations [g], [d͡z̞g], [d͡ʐg]: анэк(ґ)дот, вак(ґ)зал, пак(ґ)гаўз, во[зґ]ры, ма[зґ’, ро[зґ’, абры[зґ]лы, бра[зґ]аць, пляву[зґ]аць, вэ[дзґ]аць, [джґ]аць, эк(ґ)замэн, эк(ґ)сгумацыя and in a number of borrowed words: [ґ]анак, [ґ]арсэт, [ґ]валт, [ґ]зымс, [ґ]онта, [ґ]узік, а[ґ]рэст, [ґ’]ер[ґ’]етаць, цу[ґ]лі, шва[ґ’]ер ect. This marked the beginning of the restoration in the twentieth century of the use of the letter ґ, which was used in the Old Belarusian language.

In proper names with a non-Slavic lexical basis, explosive /g/ is traditionally pronounced in Belarusian as fricative /ɣ/; preservation of /g/ in pronunciation does not qualify as a violation of the orthoepic norm: [Г]арыбальдзі and [Ґ]арыбальдзі, [Г]рэнляндыя and [Ґ]рэнляндыя, [Г’]ётэ and [Ґ’]ётэ, [Г’]ібральтар and [Ґ’]ібральтар.

Ukrainian[edit]

The letter Ґ, ґ in the Ukrainian language conveys a sonorous soft-palate breakthrough in writing /g/. It is transliterated as the letter Gg, while the letter Гг is transliterated as Hh. (Хх as Kh kh)

Current orthography[10][edit]

§ 6. Letter Ґ

1. In Ukrainian and in long-borrowed and Ukrainianized words: а́ґрус, ґа́ва, ґа́зда́ , ґандж, ґа́нок, ґату́нок, ґвалт, ґе́ґати, ґедзь, ґелґота́ти, ґелґотіти, ґерґелі, ґерґота́ти, ґерґоті́ти, ґи́ґнути, ґирли́ґа, ґлей, ґніт (in the lamp), ґо́ґель-мо́ґель, ґонт(а), ґрасува́ти, ґра́ти (noun), ґре́чний, ґринджо́ли, ґрунт, ґу́дзик, ґу́ля, ґура́льня, джиґу́н, дзи́ґа, дзи́ґлик, дриґа́ти і дри́ґати, ремиґа́ти etc. and in their derivatives: а́ґрусовий, ґаздува́ти, ґвалтува́ти, ґе́рґіт, ґратча́стий, ґрунтови́й, ґрунтува́ти(ся), ґу́дзиковий, ґу́лька, проґа́вити etc.

2. In their own names — toponyms of Ukraine: Ґорґа́ни (massif), Ґоро́нда, У́ґля (villages in Zakarpattia), in the surnames of Ukrainians: Ґалаґа́н, Ґалято́вський, Ґе́ник, Ґерза́нич, Ґерда́н, Ґжи́цький, Ґи́ґа, Ґо́ґа, Ґо́йдич, Ґо́нта, Ґри́ґа, Ґудзь, Ґу́ла, Лома́ґа.

§ 122. Sounds [g], [h]

1. The sound /g/ and similar sounds denoted by the letter g are usually transmitted by the letter г: аванга́рд, агіта́ція, агре́сор, бло́гер, гва́рдія, генера́л, гламу́р, гра́фік, грог, емба́рго, марке́тинг, мігра́ція; лінгві́стика, негативний, се́рфінг, синаго́га, Вахта́нг, Гарсі́я, Гайнетді́н, Ердога́н, Гвіне́я, Гольфстри́м, Гренла́ндія, Гру́зія, Ге́те, Гео́рг, Гурамішві́лі, Люксембу́рг, Магоме́т, Фольксва́ген, Чика́го.

2. The letter ґ conveys the sound /g/ in long-borrowed common names, such as ґа́нок, ґатунок, ґвалт, ґра́ти, ґрунт і под. (see § 6) and their derivatives: ґа́нковий, ґратча́стий, ґрунто́вний etc.

3. In surnames and names of people it is allowed to transmit the sound /g/ in two ways: by adapting to the sound system of the Ukrainian language — the letter г (Вергі́лій, Гарсі́я, Ге́гель, Гео́рг, Ге́те, Грегуа́р, Гулліве́р) and by imitating a foreign language /g/ — the letter ґ (Верґі́лій, Ґарсі́я, Ге́ґель, Ґео́рґ, Ґе́те, Ґреґуа́р, Ґулліве́р etc.)

Form[edit]

The cursive form in Ukrainian

Regular (non-cursive) uppercase and lowercase forms of this letter look similar to the corresponding regular (non-cursive) uppercase and lowercase forms of the "Гг" letter, but with additional upturn. Handwritten (cursive) uppercase and lowercase forms of this letter are displayed by the image to the left.

Related letters and other similar characters[edit]

Computing codes[edit]

Character information
Preview Ґ ґ
Unicode name CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER
GHE WITH UPTURN
CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER
GHE WITH UPTURN
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 1168 U+0490 1169 U+0491
UTF-8 210 144 D2 90 210 145 D2 91
Numeric character reference Ґ Ґ ґ ґ
KOI8-U 189 BD 173 AD
Windows-1251 165 A5 180 B4
Macintosh Cyrillic 162 A2 182 B6

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Cyrillic: Range: 0400–04FF" (PDF). The Unicode Standard, Version 6.0. Unicode Inc. 2010. p. 42. Retrieved 2011-10-13.
  2. ^ Shevelov (1977:145)
  3. ^ Shevelov (1977:148)
  4. ^ Мелетій Смотрицький. Граматика слов'янська (1619). Підготовка факсимільного видання В. В. Німчука. Київ. «Наукова думка» (Пам'ятки української мови) 1979
  5. ^ Ukrainian Orthography (2012). — § 15. The letter ⟨ґ⟩.
  6. ^ Bušlakoŭ et al. (2005: 13)
  7. ^ А._І._Жураўскі Гісторыя беларускай літаратурнай мовы. Т. 1. — Мн., 1967.
  8. ^ Беларуская мова: хрэстоматыя: Вучэбны дапаможнік
  9. ^ БЕЛАРУСКІ КЛЯСЫЧНЫ ПРАВАПІС
  10. ^ "Український правопис 2019 року" (PDF).

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

  • The dictionary definition of Ґ at Wiktionary
  • The dictionary definition of ґ at Wiktionary